The effect of cognitive-based training for the healthy older people: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Huei-Ling Chiu, Hsin Chu, Jui-Chen Tsai,Doresses Liu, Ying-Ren Chen, Hui-Ling Yang, Kuei-Ru Chou Published: May 1, 2017



From the perspective of disease prevention, the enhancement of cognitive function among the healthy older people has become an important issue in many countries lately. This study aim to investigate the effect of cognitive-based training on the overall cognitive function, memory, attention, executive function, and visual-spatial ability of the healthy older people.


Cochrane, PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL of selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and previous systematic reviews were searched for eligible studies. The population focused on this study were healthy older people who participated in randomized controlled trials that investigated the effectiveness of cognitive-based training. The outcomes including change in overall cognitive function, memory, attention, executive function, and visual-spatial ability.


We collected a total of 31 RCTs, the results showed that cognitive-based training has a moderate effect on overall cognitive function (g = 0.419; 95%CI = 0.205–0.634) and executive function (g = 0.420; 95%CI = 0.239–0.602), and a small effect on the memory (g = 0.354; 95%CI = 0.244–0.465), attention (g = 0.218; 95%CI = 0.125–0.311), and visual-spatial ability (g = 0.183;95%CI = 0.015–0.352) in healthy older people. Subgroup analysis indicated the intervention characteristics of ≧3 times each week (p = 0.042), ≧8 total training weeks (p = 0.003) and ≧24 total training sessions (p = 0.040) yields a greater effect size.


Cognitive-based training is effective for the healthy older people. This improvement can represent a clinically important benefit, provide information about the use of cognitive-based training in healthy older people, and help the healthy older people obtain the greatest possible benefit in health promotion and disease prevention.